Rifle Drill – The Hammer Drill

This Rifle Drill is designed to focus on shot placement to the three human kill zone areas

The Hammer Drill can be conducted either as a pistol drill or a rifle drill and is designed to be completed on our Human Resources Target.  The drill focuses on shot placement in the three main kill zones to include the “T” box, the chest cavity and thoracic cavity.

Setup:

The shooter stands at the 7 yard line at the low ready or the holstered position.

Drill:

At the sound of the buzzer the shooter will fire one round to the “T” Box, two rounds to the center circle and three rounds to the thoracic cavity inverted triangle at the bottom.

Variations:

There are several variations to this rifle/pistol drill-

Variation 1: Conduct the drill at the 10 or 15 yard line.  The 15 yard line is a very difficult yard line for this drill and will most likely be limited to rifle shooters.  The drill can also be conducted from the prone or kneeling at the 25 yard line.

Variation 2: At the buzzer the shooter fires one round to the “T” box, reloads, fires two rounds to the center circle, reloads and fires three rounds to the thoracic cavity.

Variation 3: The shooter begins at the 15 yard line and fires three rounds to the thoracic cavity, the shooter then moves to the 10 yard line and fires two rounds to the center circle, that shooter then moves to the 5 yard line and fires one round to the “T” box.

The Secret Soldiers of Afghanistan and Iraq

The Secret Soldiers of Afghanistan and Iraq by Dominic Oto

Did you know that private military contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq outnumber U.S. troops three to one?

Blasting Cap

The biggest growth has been the market of protective services in hostile environments, mostly in Iraq and Afghanistan. These services include Executive Protection or Close Protection or CP (a bodyguard in layman’s terms) for government clients.

By 2017 the United States is involved in over 200 countries and territories worldwide. Some of these places are so dangerous that the State Department has assigned a threat level of “critical.”  In October 2001, an American led Coalition attacked Afghanistan. The Taliban was overthrown in six weeks.

In March 2003, the U.S. led Coalition invaded Iraq. The Iraqi people deposed dictator Saddam Hussein after 43 years of tyrannical rule.  Warring factions and militias took over in both countries opposing the American involvement. Over the next decade, violent wars broke out killing 6,000 American soldiers.

Afghanistan and Iraq are the worst and most dangerous places on earth. American personnel working there were in grave danger.  To protect essential State Department personnel American diplomatic outposts and bases in Afghanistan and Iraq needed to be protected.

PMCs hired former elite military soldiers called “operators” for the dangerous and difficult mission of protecting American assets overseas.  The operators are mostly former Navy SEALs, U.S. Army Special Forces and Rangers, and Marines. These former special operators and Marines that bring calm to moments of absolute terror and chaos. Many of them were the top warriors in their respective services.

These men are not about politics. The mission of PMCs is to protect U.S. assets and personnel in dangerous places from a relentless and constant terrorist threat.  They are mainly used in high-risk areas. PMCs act as the security element of the U.S. government assets in war zones and beyond.

PMCs protect American assets and personnel in the most austere environments.  PMCs see themselves as Americans helping Americans overseas especially in areas where there is no military support.  PMCs do amazing work. Their service and sacrifice is larger unknown because they are no longer soldiers.  PMCs put others before themselves.

They train in everything from shooting and reloading rifles and pistols, to close quarters combat to offensive driving.  Business firms working The Circuit are called Commercial Security Companies or CSCs.

The primary goal of CSCs is to make money. They are above the political reasons that countries are in wars. PMCs are different than mercenaries. Mercenaries are hired guns who sell their services to the highest bidder despite the mission or circumstances.

Mercenaries have no national loyalty, no sense of duty or honor to a country and no moral foundation.  Most PMCs are former soldiers. They regard their employment on The Circuit as a continuation of their public service, not an end to it.

Most PMCs do not accept jobs that run counter to U.S. national interests. A majority of PMCs are retired veterans with a decade or more of military service. They see their work in the private security sector as an extension of their service as soldiers. PMCs are patriots and military contractors, not mercenaries.

Works Cited:

Pelton, Robert Young. Licensed to Kill: Hired Guns on the War on Terror . New York City: Random House, 2006.

Schumacher, Gerry. A Bloody Business: America’s War Zone Contractors and the Occupation of Iraq. St. Paul, MN : Zenith Press, 2006.

 

Who Are the Night Stalkers?

by Dominic Oto

Who are the Army Stalkers?

The U.S. Army Night Stalkers are a team of highly trained of helicopter pilots. Also known as the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), the unit was formed in 1981 after the failed rescue attempt of the Iran hostages by Delta Force.

The military needed an elite group of helicopter pilots to take on dangerous missions. Today, the Night Stalkers are considered the U.S. military’s most elite helicopter support unit. They serve all over the world and are based out of Fort Campbell, Kentucky.

The Night Stalkers use helicopters to perform both overt and clandestine missions. They take members of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC), USASOC and USSOCOM into denied enemy territory. They also pick them up and deliver them to safety.

The term Night Stalkers originated from the unit’s propensity to fly primarily at night.  

Gear and Weapons

The Night Stalkers have many helicopters in their inventory to complete their dangerous missions. One of them is the MH-60 Black Hawk, an upgraded version of the US Military’s UH-60. 

For reconnaissance missions to gain information on the enemy they use the MH-6 Little Bird, sometimes called the “flying egg.” The Little Bird has an attack variant known as the AH-6. The MH-6 can carry six Special Operations personel on bench seats mounted to the side doors of the helicopter. The Little Bird was designed as a scout helicopter for Army armored units. Since the early 1980s the Night Stalkers have used it almost exclusively for the support of special operations missions.

The work horse of the Night Stalkers is the MH-47 Chinook. The Chinook is a twin bladed that is an advanced heavy-lift helicopter used for both cargo and transportation of commandos. The Chinook is used for the insertion and extraction of Special Operations Forces during missions. The aircraft is also be used in the resupply role to carry heavy payloads.

Most Night Stalkers helicopters have an amazing offensive capability. Some have 7.62mm miniguns. These machine guns can fire up to 6,000 rounds per minute.  In addition, the helicopters are outfitted with .50 caliber machine guns, hellfire rockets and various ordinance, all designed to provide air to ground cover for troops. 

Life as a Night Stalker

Pilots go through intense training to become Night Stalkers. Before a pilot can even apply he has to have at least 1,000 flight hours. At least 100 hours must be done wearing night-vision goggles. Pilots must also pass physical and mental tests.

All Night Stalker pilots start with a “basic mission qualified” status. They can’t command a mission until they have 12 to 18 months experience. Then after their probation period that are “fully mission qualified.”

Trainees, both pilots and support personnel, who pass the screening test join Green Platoon. In Green Platoon the candidates get 14 more weeks of brutal training. Recruits take classes on weapons, survival, surviving interrogation, and advanced aviation operations. Next, recruits spend two weeks learning advanced navigation. Finally, the pilots spend six additional weeks learning to fly a specific helicopter.

Green Platoon members who survive the training get their new assignments at the end. They are assigned to Night Stalker headquarters up to four battalions. Then they join their company. Each company is ready to deploy within four hours of mission notification.

The Night Stalkers motto is: “Anywhere, anytime, Night Stalkers don’t quit!”

Works Cited:

Weiser, Andrea L. U.S. Army Special Operations Command: Night Stalkers, Special Operations Aviation. Mankato, MN: Capstone, 2000.

Oto holds a BS in History from Oregon State University and a MMA in Military History from American Public University. He served three tours in Iraq and Afghanistan as a Company Commander and Staff Trainer to the Afghan National Army. He was wounded once and decorated three times. Oto is an Infantry Lieutenant Colonel in the Army Reserve. Oto is also the author of  “The Message and Ministry of Billy Graham: A Biography of America’s Preacher”.

The Atomic Bombs on Japan by Dominic Oto

Advanced Special Operations Bag

In August 1945, the U.S. dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. The bombs killed as many as 135,000 people, mostly civilians. President Harry S. Truman’s decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan was one of the most controversial decisions in World War II.

As the years have passed, the controversy has intensified. More and more people both in America and aboard, have condemned both President Truman and America for that decision.  This criticism of President Truman is based on limited historical knowledge. We need to look at both the situation President Truman confronted and the basis for his decision to drop the atomic bomb.

Harsh criticism of President Truman’s decision is from a flawed analysis aided by some very bad history. Some of that history was written by members of the so-called “Atomic Diplomacy” school.  These controversial historians allege that Truman dropped two atomic bombs on Japan even though he knew Japan was on the verge of surrender. According to these so-called historians, Truman did this to intimidate the Soviet Union in the already developing Cold War.

That suspect interpretation of history be refuted fully.  President Truman wanted to bomb Nagasaki and Hiroshima for legitimate reasons. Both cities were major military and industrial targets. He bombed the cities to avoid an American led invasion of Japan. Truman knew, in his own words, “An Okinawa from one end of Japan to the other.”

Okinawa was the largest battle in the Pacific in World War II. The 80 day plus campaign for the island caused horrific fatalities. Casualties from the battle were over 100,000 Japanese and 50,000 Allied troops. President Truman’s assumptions and decisions on using atomic weapons on Japan were legitimate. He knew if we invaded Japan the death toll would skyrocket into the millions.

By July of 1945, the Japanese had been the targets of months of devastating attacks by American B-29s bombers. Tokyo, their capital, and other major cities had suffered extensive damage. The home islands had a naval blockade surrounding them. This made food and fuel scarce.

Japanese military and civilian losses had reached 3 million. There seemed no end in sight to the war even with the heavy casualties.  Despite all this Japan’s leader, especially its military, clung to notions of honor called “Ketsu-Go” (decisive battle).

In fact, at this time, the Japanese government had mobilized a large part of the civilian population. They were brought together in a national militia that would be deployed to defend the home islands. Their mission was to slow or stop an Allied invasion even it meant death.

The Japanese military still wanted to fight on after the use of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Japanese military leaders wanted to pursue the desperate option of a last stand defense.

The all-out Allied invasion plan of the Japanese home islands was called “Operation Downfall.” Estimates from casualties of past amphibious landings of Japanese held islands guessed that millions people, both Allied soldiers and Japanese civilians, would die in the invasion.

The atomic bombs forced Emperor Hirohito to understand clearly that the defense of the homeland was useless. This was something his military leaders refused to comprehend. It was the unprecedented intervention of a Japanese emperor to break the impasse of the Japanese government. Finally, Japan surrendered. The dropping of the atom bombs allowed the emperor and the Japanese government to end the war.

All other scenarios to secure an American victory would have resulted in millions of Japanese and Allied deaths. Hard as is to accept the loss of Japanese civilians would have been far greater without the dropping of the bombs. There were thousands of Allied prisoners of war that the Japanese would have killed in case of an invasion.

President Truman’s decision to drop the bomb is the least awful of all the options available to him a Commander-in-Chief. Even in retrospect, 70 plus years later, far removed from the pressures President Truman faced in 1945, his critics have no other options that would be been better and less costly in casualties.

The judgment is clear and decided. The dropping of the atomic bomb on Nagasaki and Hiroshima shortened the war, stop the need for a land invasion, and saved countless of lives, both Allied and Japanese. Finally, the atom bombs ended the Japanese brutalization of the people of Asia. Dropping the atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima to end World War II was the right decision.

Works Cited:

Feis, H. The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

 Vietnam POW- Colonel Nick Rowe

READYMAN Hostage Escape Cars

In recognition of Friday, September 15, National POW/MIA Recognition Day 2017 we honor Special Forces, Colonel Nick Rowe.

Nick Rowe (Feb 8, 1938- April 21, 1989) is a legendary Green Beret. James N. “Nick” Rowe was born in McAllen, Texas, 8 February 1938. Rowe graduated from West Point in 1960. He went to Vietnam in 1963, where he served as a Special Officer (Green Beret). His mission was to advise and assist the South Vietnamese government. He organized, trained, equipped and employed the Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG).

Rowe was captured by the Viet Cong on October 29, 1963. The Viet Cong were communist guerillas.  He became a Prisoner of War (POW). Rowe was imprisoned along with Captain Humbert R. “Rocky” Versace, and Sergeant Daniel L. Pitzer during a CIDG operation.

During his captivity, Rowe was moved to several POW camps in South Vietnam. He spent the majority of his time in the U Minh Forest, known as the “Forest of Darkness.” Rowe was held in a cage. He was physically tortured and psychologically abused. Rowe continued to resist communist ideology. Row tried to escape three times.

On December 31, 1968, en route to his execution, Rowe escaped his five years of captivity. He outsmarted his guards and flagged down an American helicopter. His escape was one of only two successfully made by US Army personnel during the Vietnam War.

 

In 1969, Nick Rowe received a hero’s welcome and a parade in his hometown of McAllen, Texas. Rowe’s moving memoir, Five Years to Freedom, tells the amazing story of his time as a POW was published in 1971.

SERE

Nick Rowe was recalled to active duty in 1981. As a lieutenant colonel, Nick Rowe became Chief of the Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape training program for the U.S. Army. SERE training teaches personnel that are at high risk of capture the necessary skills to endure isolation, avoid capture, resist exploitation and survive captivity. The course is based on Rowe’s experience as a POW. Completing the SERE is a requirement for graduation from the U.S. Army’s Special Forces Qualification Course.

In 1987, Colonel Nick Rowe was assigned as the chief Army division of the Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group in the Philippines. In 1989 Rowe, 51 and a Green Beret, who survived five years as a POW, was gunned down by communist rebels. Rowe was providing counter-insurgency training to U.S. allies in the Philippines.

Works Cited:

Rowe, James N. Five Years to Freedom: The True Story of a Vietnam POW. New York City: Random House, 1971.

North Korea’s Nuclear Program- 70 Years of Aggression

It’s been a slow burn on the Korean peninsula to get to where we are today. Let’s go back in time to see how we got here.

How did the aggression with North Korea start?

Back in 1945, World War II had just ended. Japan no longer ruled Korea. The peninsula was split into two parts. The Soviet Union was in the North, and the U.S. was in the South.  Three years later in 1948, Kim Il Sung became the Soviet backed leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea or North Korea. Kim was in power all through the Korean War (1950-1953).

Throughout the 1960’s and 70’s, North Korea ramped up its industrial and defense ambitions. According to CIA documents, North Korea commandos were being sent across the border to South Korea. The commandos’ mission was to destabilize the South Korean government.

Why does North Korea see the U.S. as threat?

In 1983 the U.S. invaded Grenada. The Reagan-era military policy and the Grenada invasion drove North Korea to develop nuclear weapons. North Korea thought the U.S., a committed ally to the South Korea, could eventually train its sights on North Korea. By 1986 North Korea had a research nuclear reactor.

By 1993 North Korea fired a medium range ballistic missile into the Sea of Japan. In 1994, President Clinton struck a deal with North Korea called “The Agreed Framework.” This same year Kim Il Sung’s son Kim Jung Il took the throne.  The agreement shut down the North’s nuclear program in exchange for two things: 1. Oil and 2. Diplomatic relations, or so we thought.  In 1995 North Korea founded another covert nuclear program.

How did things with North Korea get worse?

Things kick into overdrive here. In 1996 North Korea sent troops into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The DMZ is the 200 mile, 2 miles wide heavily fortified border separating North Korea and South Korea. In 1998 North Korea fired a long-range rocket over Japan.

In 2000 the Clinton administration’s deal fell apart when President George W. Bush was elected. In 2002 North Korea kicked out United Nations inspectors and reactivated a nuclear facility. By 2003 North Korea had enough plutonium for six nuclear bombs.

In 2003 Muammar Gaddafi disarmed Libya’s nuclear program. No doubt Kim watched the deposed leader of Libya be captured and killed eight years later. Lesson learned was give up your nukes, and you give up your power. North Korea saw disarmament as an “invasion tactic” of the west.

In 2006 a new test was done in underground facility sparking new sanctions by the U.N. These tests and provocations continued until Kim’s death in 2011.

Where are we now with North Korea?

His son Kim Jong Un has stepped up the nuclear program ever since. He has accelerated the program faster than anyone ever expected. Kim now has long-range missiles with nuclear warheads.  These nuclear missile threaten the U.S. and several allies in the region.

If we agree to peace talks with North Korea that is the same thing as saying we accept that are going to be a nuclear power with intercontinental ballistic missiles. A nuclear North Korea is unacceptable because North Korea is unpredictable.

Essential Shooting Guide & Target

The next play is the hands of the North Koreans.

Works Cited:

Behnke, A. (2008). Kim Jong Il’s North Korea. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Group .

The 82nd Division in World War I- 1917- “All Americans”- 2017

100 Years of Selfless Service

Today

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World War I

The 82nd’s history began during World War I (WWI). The war had been raging in Europe for two years when the Americans felt compelled to join the fight in 1917. The United States entered World War I on April 6, 1917.  As the Army expanded many new divisions were created. The 82nd was one of these new divisions.

The 82nd Division was formed on August 25, 1917 at Camp Gordon, Georgia. As the division filled with new excited draftees. The officers discovered that there were soldiers from every state.

For many young men it seemed like the adventure of a lifetime. Many of these young men joined the 82nd Division. The soldiers of the 82nd came from every corner of America. They came from factories, farms, coal mines, offices, and universities from all forty-eight states. They answered the rallying cry from across the country to join the fight to make the world “safe for democracy.”

As new divisions were organizing and forming for the combat, they decided on nicknames. The nicknames helped build espirt-de-corps and to forge bonds between soldiers. Brigadier General (BG) W.P. Burnham of the 82nd held a competition with the soldiers of the Division, the citizens of Atlanta, and the Atlanta Georgian newspaper to get a nickname for his diverse unit. Georgia Govenor, Hugh Dorsey, BG Burnham and Major R.E. Beebe would be the judges.

After thousands of submissions, Mrs. Vivienne Goodwyn’s, The “All American” Division was selected. The nickname was fitting. The 82nd division was made up by men from each of the 48 states. To pay tribute to their nickname, 82nd soldiers began sewing the now familiar blue circle that sat in the middle of their red square shoulder patch, with the double “AA” for “All American.” The name reflected the unique composition of the 82nd Division.

The soldiers quickly started training for the Great War. The recruits changed from draftees into doughboys. On April 25, 1918, the division sailed for Europe. On May 11 the division commander choose the 325th Infantry Regiment to parade before the King of England to show America’s commitment to the Allied cause.

In early June American officers and non-commissioned officers were sent to the British held Somme section of the front. This was to gain experience in small unit operations and the brutal realities of trench warfare. On June 9, 1918, Captain Jewett Williams of the 326th Infantry Regiment was killed in action. He was the first 82nd soldier to give his life in combat.

After learning the hard and brutal lessons of World War I, the division moved to it’s main section of operation. On September 12, the division was committed to the Saint-Mihiel offensive.

The Allies planned two large offensive for the fall of 1918 that would reduce German resistance in France. The Allies hoped the arrival of the new American divisions would turn the tide in their favor.

The main thrust of the 82nd was on the west bank of the Moselle River heading north towards Norray. On September 14, German artillery shelled the area with high explosives and mustard gas. The 82nd held their positions. Enemy artillery caused heavy losses. The division suffered more than 8,000 casualties during the Saint-Mihiel offensive.

Colonel Emeroy Pike, who died of wounds received in combat, earned the Medal of Honor for his actions on September 15, 1918. Pike was the first member of the 82nd Division to earn the nation’s highest award for valor.

The aim of the second large scale offensive planned by the Allies was to reduce German held positions in the Meuse River valley and the Argonne Forest. The 82nd’s role in the operation called for the division to fight astride the Aire River. Moving north Moving north, the 82nd Division captured St. Juvin on 14 October 1918. The division defended it against a heavy counter-attack the following day.

During its service in the Meuse-Argonne the 82nd suffered more than 7,000 casualties. Another soldier was awarded the Medal of Honor. That soldier was Corporal Alvin York of G Company, 328th Infantry Regiment.

The 82nd was relieved on the Argonne on November 1, 1918. This ended the division’s participation in the Great War.

The Army demobilized the 82nd on May 27, 1919. The division became a reserve in September, 1921  It wasn’t until Japan’s attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 that America needed the 82nd Division again.

Works Cited:

Burton, G. Edward. Official History of the 82nd Division American Expediationary Forces “All American” Division. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1919.

Explosion at Ft. Bragg Injures 8 and kills 4 Special Forces Students

More than 8 Special Forces Engineer Sergeant Students from Ft. Bragg North Carolina have been injured and 4 students have been killed  following an explosion.  The students undergo intensive explosive training during their course and reports state that the explosion occurred during a routine training exercise.

We will update this article with more information as it comes in.

How A North Korean EMP attack could cripple America

By Dominic Oto

A North Korean EMP is America’s worst nightmare. The scenario is like the “Walking the Dead”: The United States jumps into darkness after an EMP attack. The U.S. electrical grid is wiped out— not just for a few hours or days, but months. The vulnerable power system could take 18 months to recover, so long that millions of Americans would die.

This past week the North Korean again threaten the use of tactical nuclear weapons to defeat the U.S.  The sad truth is an EMP strike from a North Korean nuclear weapon could fry melt the U.S. electric grid. Here is how and why.

What is an electromagnetic pulse (EMP)?

An EMP is a burst of high-intensity radio waves emitted from nuclear explosions in the upper atmosphere that scrambles electronics. Most nuclear warheads are a multi-functional weapon capable of being detonated a high altitude. This will cause a super-powerful EMP attack.

A thermonuclear bomb could wipe most of a city. The pulse from a high altitude blast could cause chaos and destruction far beyond the city.

Think of it this way. A sudden power surge can overload a power outlet. An EMP is far, far worse. A nuclear blast detonated high in the atmosphere could knock out the power grid across a huge part of the continental U.S.

The higher the bomb is detonated, the wider the EMP’s range and the effects of a bomb. A bomb exploded 19 miles above the country would affect all of Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota. The explosion would affect substantial chunks of surrounding states.  A powerful bomb detonated at an altitude 249 miles above the country would wipe all electronics in the U.S. That’s the height of the International Space Station and other low Earth orbit satellites.

What would an EMP attack on America look like?

If a war broke out with North Korea the results from a thermonuclear blast would be catastrophic. The use of nuclear weapons by both the U.S. and North Korea would escalate into Armageddon.

If America were attacked at a high altitude by a nuclear weapon, it could shut down the U.S. infrastructure. An EMP attack would be debilitating to our way of life. There would be a shortage of food and water for the whole country. Millions of Americans would die.

How are American leaders planning for an EMP attack?

The American electrical system is vulnerable. American electrical grid system is outdated. America is 100% dependent on electricity. An EMP attack is a potential hazardous dismantling force that would cripple America. This worries military planners.

North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) is working to find a way to protect and shield the U.S. against such a strike.  U.S. military planners are concerned with protecting the interconnected network that delivers electricity from an EMP attack.

The effects of EMPs made by tactical nuclear weapons would force Americans to face the greatest catastrophe that the U.S has ever seen. The U.S. military planners at Cheyenne Mountain, the Cold War bunker, are looking for a way to protect and reinforce the electrical grid.

NORAD is trying to stop the electric grid from having the catastrophe of possible nuclear EMP attacks. They are also looking at protecting the electrical grid from a natural disaster.

How would an EMP attack happen?

An EMP attack is one of the most important and dangerous threats to the U.S. This would leave hospitals without power. Civilian and government agencies unable to coordinate. The very fabric of society could unravel very fast.

James Woolsey, the former Chief of the CIA, told a newspaper that if you look at the electric grid and what it’s susceptible to. Within hours of an EMP blast, we would be moving into a new world with no food delivery, no water purification, no banking, no telecommunications, and no medicine. All the things we depend in our modern society.

North Korea has demonstrated its ability to reach this altitude with two satellites launches in 2012 and 2016. Experts think these launches were tests of an EMP trajectory.

An EMP attack has catastrophic consequences for the U.S. Our vulnerability is increasing daily. Our use and dependence on electronics and automated systems continue to grow.

Works Cited:

Nazarian, A. (2017, September 7). North Korea Openly Threatens Electromagnetic Pulse Attack for First Time. Breitbart News.

Nikolewski, R. (2017, March 13). North Korea amps up worries about potential threat to the U.S. power grid. San Diego Tribune.

Oto holds a BS in History from Oregon State University and a MMA in Military History from American Public University. He served three tours in Iraq and Afghanistan as a Company Commander and Staff Trainer to the Afghan National Army. He was wounded once and decorated three times. Oto is an Infantry Lieutenant Colonel in the Army Reserve. Oto is also the author of  “The Message and Ministry of Billy Graham: A Biography of America’s Preacher”.